Human development approach started in 1980s. It emphasizes on the fact that human should be at the center of all developmental effort. Human development should be the destination and not a mean. UNDP started publishing human development report from 1990. Human development are divided into four categories highly developed, developed, medium and low.


  • New concept
  • Multidimensional
  • Inter disciplinary subject
  • Human at the center
  • concerned with increasing skill, capacity of human

Human development Index (HDI) measurement

Measures three fundamental dimension of life expectancy, level of education and Income

\sqrt[3]{I_{life} \times I_{education} \times I_{income}}

Why human development

  • Increase quality of life
  • Increase earning capacity
  • Utilize existing resources
  • Improve knowledge, skill and capacity
  • Increase entrepreneurship skills
  • Contribute to nation development

HDI and Nepal

  • 2013 – rank 157 with 0.463 index
  • 2015 – rank 145 with 0.54 index
  • 2019 – rank 147 with 0.579 index

More information in HDI can be found on UNDP HDI Nepal page

Cause of low HDI

  • Conflict for 10 years
  • Practical implementation of policy was lacking
  • Lack of resource and misuse of aids
  • Brain drain
  • Difficult bureaucratic process
  • High corruption
  • Misuse of welfare effort of government
  • Not enough investment in sectors like education, healthcare, drinking water, electricity and other infrastructure.
  • Equitable distribution of economic achievement lacking
  • Special arrangement like reservation, affirmative action, empowerment and mainstreaming effort yet to reach lower level


  • Transparency, accountability and efficient process in economic activity
  • Proper vision, mission, goal and strategy.
  • Good governance
  • Special arrangement for downtrodden and marginalized group
  • Transform agriculture from subsistence to professional
  • Emphasis on infrastructure development and balance growth
  • Decrease economic imbalance and poverty gap
  • Political stability, improved bureaucracy, sustainable peace
  • Human development as first priority